# Abstract Syntax Tree

The Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) groups tokens into meaningful structures and is the most sophisticated way of analyzing PowerShell code.

The PowerShell parser turns individual characters into meaningful keywords and distinguishes for example commands, parameters, and variables. This is called tokenization and was previously covered. These tokens are used for example by editors to colorize the code and show variables in a different color than commands.

## Overview

The parser doesn’t stop there. In order for PowerShell to execute code, it needs to know how individual tokens form structures that can be executed. The parser takes the tokens and builds an Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) which essentially groups tokens into meaningful structures.

### Example: Discovering Commands

For example, a command token is grouped together with parameter and argument tokens to resemble a command AST that represents a complete command structure. Only then can PowerShell take that information and actually execute the command.

Abstract Syntax Tree is called tree because it works like a hierarchical tree: PowerShell starts with the first token and then takes the PowerShell language definition (syntax) to see what the next possible tokens could be. This way, the parser works its way through the code. Either, PowerShell succeeds and creates a valid structure of your code, or it encounters Syntax Errors and raises an error.

For example, if a string token is followed by a number token, this is syntactically not possible, and the parser emits an error:

# this is a syntax error:
"Hello" 10


According to the PowerShell language definition, a string token can only be followed by an operator token which is why this line is syntactically correct, and when you execute it, PowerShell knows what to do and emits an excited greeting:

# this is syntactically correct:
"Hello" * 10


## Accessing the AST

Beginning in PowerShell 3, the Abstract Syntax Tree is exposed to you, so you, too, can now analyze PowerShell code and learn about its internal structure.

There are two primary ways to access the AST:

• ScriptBlock: a scriptblock is a valid chunk of PowerShell code, so it has already been processed by the parser, and the parser has guaranteed that there are no syntax errors in the code. Each scriptblock has a property called AST that exposes the Abstract Syntax Tree of the code contained in the scriptblock.
• Parser: you can ask the PowerShell parser to parse arbitrary code and return tokens and AST. You are basically mimicking what PowerShell does when you enter and execute code. Because the parser processes raw text, it is not guaranteed that the code is syntactically correct. That’s why the parser is also returning any syntax errors it found.

### Exposing Parsed ScriptBlock Content

When you assign code to a scriptblock, you invoke the PowerShell parser implicitly. You can’t avoid this. During the assignment process, PowerShell invokes the parser to test whether the text is valid PowerShell code, and only then does the assignment succeed:

# you cannot assign invalid code to a scriptblock:
$code = { "Hello" 10 }  PowerShell refuses to execute the code and instead emits an exception explaining the syntax error (Unexpected Token): At line:2 char:22 +$code = { "Hello" 10 }
+                      ~~
Unexpected token '10' in expression or statement.
+ CategoryInfo          : ParserError: (:) [], ParentContainsErrorRecordException
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : UnexpectedToken


PowerShell refuses to run any script that contains syntax errors, so if the line above is found anywhere in a script, the entire script will break.

If people are telling you that PowerShell is executing scripts line-by-line from top to bottom, that’s really a simplification. In reality, PowerShell is feeding the entire code into the parser first.

If a syntax error is encountered, PowerShell stops and won’t execute anything which is good because executing a syntactically incorrect script would yield unpredictable results.

If the code is syntactically correct, next PowerShell takes the generated Abstract Syntax Tree and starts executing the structures inside of it.

This typically happens line-by-line and from top to bottom, but that’s not a requirement. For example, the statement trap is always executed first, regardless of where in your code it is located, and commands can span across multiple lines or can be nested inside of expandable strings.

You can assign syntactically correct code to a scriptblock:

# once code is successfully assigned to a scriptblock,
# it is fully parsed and ready to be executed:
$code = { "Hello" * 10 }  The scriptblock now contains fully parsed PowerShell code that is ready to be invoked: $code.Invoke()


#### Looking at the AST

Likewise, you can look at the Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) that was built by the parser:

$code.Ast  Attributes : {} UsingStatements : {} ParamBlock : BeginBlock : ProcessBlock : EndBlock : "Hello" * 10 DynamicParamBlock : ScriptRequirements : Extent : { "Hello" * 10 } Parent : { "Hello" * 10 }  I’ll explain in a second what you actually see here, and what you can do with this. Let’s first continue to look at the role of the parser, and what you can do with it. #### Testing Valid Code Since a scriptblock can contain only valid code, the scriptblock does not need a property that exposes syntax errors. However, you can get to the syntax errors during implicit parsing. Just catch any exception raised by the parser. This can be used to create a simple test function that identifies syntax errors in PowerShell code: function Test-PowerShellCode { param ( [string]$Code
)

try
{
# try and convert string to scriptblock:
$null = [ScriptBlock]::Create($Code)
}
catch
{
# the parser is invoked implicitly and returns
# syntax errors as exceptions:
$_.Exception.InnerException.Errors } }  When you call the function with valid code, it returns nothing. When there are syntax errors, the exception returns detailed information about the syntax error(s): Test-PowerShellCode -Code '"Hello" 10'  Extent ErrorId Message IncompleteInput ------ ------- ------- --------------- 10 UnexpectedToken Unexpected token '10' in expression or statement. False  #### Adding Pipeline Support By adding pipeline support, this simple function can search and identify errors in hundreds of scripts: function Test-PowerShellScript { param ( # accept script path via pipeline # accept strings, and accept objects with a property "FullName" # (results from Get-ChildItem) [Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipeline,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName)] [Alias('FullName')] [string]$Path
)

# repeat this for all pipeline input:
process
{
$content = Get-Content -Path$Path -Raw -Encoding Default
# get syntax errors:
$syntaxErrors = Test-PowerShellCode -Code$content
# parse for syntax errors and return results:
[PSCustomObject]@{
# return file name
Name = Split-Path -Path $Path -Leaf # return$false if $syntaxErrors is$null
HasErrors = [bool]($syntaxErrors) # return syntax errors Errors =$syntaxErrors
# return full path
Path = $Path } } }  And this is how you could bulk-check your entire script repository for faulty scripts: Get-ChildItem -Path$home -Recurse -File -Filter *.ps1 -Include *.ps1 |
Test-PowerShellScript |
Where-Object HasErrors |
Select-Object -Property Name, Path -ExpandProperty Errors |


There are three interesting learning points you can take out of this example:

• Note how the code uses Select-Objectboth with -Property and -ExpandProperty: the output shows the properties Name and Path plus unwraps the objects found in the property Errors, so you immediately see all the detailed information about the syntax errors. You may use both parameters in combination as long as there is no naming conflict, i.e. as long as the child objects unwrapped by -ExpandProperty don’t conflict with the properties listed in -Property.

• Note also how Get-ChildItem is using both -Filter and -Include. The parameter -Filter is a fast but unspecific provider-level filter whereas -Include is a slow but precise PowerShell filter that processes the results delivered by the provider. If you used only -Include, the code would take longer to run. If you used only -Filter, the results could contain more than just .ps1 scripts (in Windows PowerShell at least. This bug has been fixed in PowerShell 7 meanwhile):

Get-ChildItem -Path $env:windir -Recurse -Filter *.ps1 -ErrorAction Ignore | Group-Object -Property Extension -NoElement  Count Name ----- ---- 715 .ps1 539 .ps1xml  • Note how I implemented a new function Test-PowerShellScript that internally calls the existing function Test-PowerShellCode. So why not adding pipeline and file support to Test-PowerShellCode directly? Always make sure your functions stay simple and modular. The two separate functions are much easier to understand individually, and each of them has a clear focus, naming, and mission. Test-PowerShellScript focuses entirely on pipeline-support for script files, so if that’s something you are interested, simply navigate to the appropriate article. That’s so much easier than fiddling with pages and pages of monstrous catch-all functions or scripts that try and be a swiss army knive for just about everything imaginable. #### Use Case: Identifying Missing Types Typically, there should never be syntax errors in PowerShell scripts because they are really something that should have been taken care of and sorted out before saving the script, so why bother? Syntax errors aren’t just missing quotes or other obvious PowerShell dyslexia. For example, PowerShell considers it a syntax error when a data type is unknown (indicating that there may be something missing). To find all missing types in your scripts, try this: Get-ChildItem -Path$home -Recurse -File -Filter *.ps1 -Include *.ps1 |
Test-PowerShellScript |
Where-Object HasErrors |
Select-Object -Property Name, Path -ExpandProperty Errors |
Where-Object ErrorId -eq TypeNotFound |
Select-Object -Property Extent, Path |
Out-GridView -Title 'Missing Data Types'


Missing types are just a hint that something may be missing. Often, a script uses Add-Type to dynamically load or define .NET assemblies. Of course you won’t see any results if your scripts don’t use unknown data types.

#### Use Case: Detect Incompatible PowerShell Code

PowerShell 7 introduced a couple of new operators such as the ternary operator (?). When you use it in a script, the code becomes incompatible with Windows PowerShell and won’t run there anymore.

Keep in mind: Test-PowerShellCode is using the parser of the PowerShell version you are running it in. So you can use it to identify code that isn’t compatible with this version.

The line below returns a syntax error when you run the command in Windows PowerShell, and returns nothing when you run it in PowerShell 7:

Test-PowerShellCode -Code '$true ? "TRUE" : "FALSE"'  Windows PowerShell returns an error because ? is a new operator that wasn’t part of the original Windows PowerShell language definition: Extent ErrorId Message IncompleteInput ------ ------- ------- --------------- ? UnexpectedToken Unexpected token '?' in expression or statement. False  So you can use the ErrorId UnexpectedToken to identify code that either is incompatible with your current PowerShell version or was written by a complete PowerShell analphabet: Get-ChildItem -Path$home -Recurse -File -Filter *.ps1 -Include *.ps1 |
Test-PowerShellScript |
Where-Object HasErrors |
Select-Object -Property Name, Path -ExpandProperty Errors |
Where-Object ErrorId -eq UnexpectedToken |
Select-Object -Property Extent, Path |
Out-GridView -Title 'Potentially Incompatible Code' -Passthru |
Foreach-Object { notepad $_.Path }  The code opens a gridview with all of the instances of unexpected tokens. Select the scripts you want to investigate (hold Ctrl to select multiple) to open them in notepad. If you get no results, obviously no gridview opens. You know then that there were simply no scripts with unexpected tokens. ### Invoking Parser Directly The PowerShell parser is publicly accessible via its API (Application Programming Interface) so you can send arbitrary code to the parser and have it return tokens, encountered syntax errors, and the AST (Abstract Syntax Tree): # code to parse. Can be one line or pages of code read from a file # via Get-Content -Raw -Path c:\somepath\somefile.ps1 -Encoding Default$code = ' "Hello" * 10 '

# these variables must exist and will be filled by reference later:
$tokens =$errors = $null # send code to parser:$ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseInput($code, [ref]$tokens, [ref]$errors) # parser returns the AST and fills the variables$tokens and $errors #$tokens is an array with all tokens, and $errors is an array with all syntax errors # opens a gridview with details about all identified token:$tokens  | Out-GridView -Title 'Token'

# this will do nothing since there are no syntax errors in the sample code.
# play with $code to see how syntax errors surface:$errors | Out-GridView -Title 'Syntax Errors'

# $ast returns the abstract syntax tree:$ast


Since the parser takes any text, including code with syntax errors, it returns all encountered syntax errors. That’s different from calling the parser implicitly where syntax errors would automatically throw exceptions.

We have looked at token previously, and the syntax errors surfacing in $errors are identical to the ones you received above. The AST surfacing in $ast is almost identical to the one you received earlier:

Attributes         : {}
UsingStatements    : {}
ParamBlock         :
BeginBlock         :
ProcessBlock       :
EndBlock           : "Hello" * 10
DynamicParamBlock  :
ScriptRequirements :
Extent             :  "Hello" * 10
Parent             :


The AST looks a little bit different because this time you submitted a string instead of a scriptblock to the parser.

#### ParseInput()

The parser method ParseInput() used in this example has two overloads, and the example above used the first one:

OverloadDefinitions
-------------------
static ScriptBlockAst ParseInput(string input, [ref] Token[] tokens, [ref] ParseError[] errors)
static ScriptBlockAst ParseInput(string input, string fileName, [ref] Token[] tokens, [ref] ParseError[] errors)


The second overload takes an additional fileName argument, and the first overload essentially calls the second one internally and submits $null for this argument. But what does it do? It is simply adding an (arbitrary) filename to the resulting objects. It is not reading from this file, and in fact the file does not even need to exist. Put short: the second overload is used internally with CIM modules and manifests and can be safely ignored. #### ParseFile() If you really want to parse file content (and not strings), use the method ParseFile(). Here is its signature: OverloadDefinitions ------------------- static ScriptBlockAst ParseFile(string fileName, [ref] Token[] tokens, [ref] ParseError[] errors)  Instead of submitting a string with the code to parse, submit a string with the path to a script file containing the code. ParseFile() opens the file for reading using default encoding. So with this method you could rewrite Test-PowerShellScript from above and invoke the parser directly to test for syntax errors: function Test-PowerShellScript { param ( [Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipeline,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName)] [Alias('FullName')] [string]$Path
)

process
{
# create reference variable to return syntax errors:
$errors =$null
# parse script content and ignore ast and tokens
# we are just interested in syntax errors:
[System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseFile($Path, [ref]$null, [ref]$errors) [PSCustomObject]@{ Name = Split-Path -Path$Path -Leaf
# return $false if$errors is empty
HasErrors = $errors.Count -gt 0 # return syntax errors Errors =$errors
Path = $Path } } }  ## Understanding the AST By now you know how to invoke the parser indirectly and directly and get a hold of the AST. So what can you do with it? The Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) is a tree of Ast objects. The top of this tree is what the parser returns to you, for example in the example code above: # since it is the top of the tree, it has no parent and yields$null:
$ast.Parent # the "Extent" describes the PowerShell code this Ast object represents # since it is the top element, it represents the entire code:$ast.Extent

File                :
StartScriptPosition : System.Management.Automation.Language.InternalScriptPosition
EndScriptPosition   : System.Management.Automation.Language.InternalScriptPosition
StartLineNumber     : 1
StartColumnNumber   : 1
EndLineNumber       : 1
EndColumnNumber     : 15
Text                :  "Hello" * 10
StartOffset         : 0
EndOffset           : 14


### Ast Objects

Any Ast object you come across when you traverse the Abstract Syntax Tree has the properties Parent and Extent. Parent defines the tree relationships, and Extent defines the PowerShell code that an Ast object covers.

#### Default Properties

Or technically speaking. all Ast objects derive from the type [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] which in turn implements the properties Parent and Extent:

[System.Management.Automation.Language.ScriptBlockAst].BaseType.GetProperties() | Select-Object -Property Name, PropertyType

Name   PropertyType
----   ------------
Extent System.Management.Automation.Language.IScriptExtent
Parent System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast


Extent provides you with the original PowerShell code extend and position that is covered by the Ast object:

[System.Management.Automation.Language.ScriptExtent].GetProperties() | Sort-Object -Property Name | Select-Object -Property Name, PropertyType

Name                PropertyType
----                ------------
EndColumnNumber     System.Int32
EndLineNumber       System.Int32
EndOffset           System.Int32
EndScriptPosition   System.Management.Automation.Language.IScriptPosition
File                System.String
StartColumnNumber   System.Int32
StartLineNumber     System.Int32
StartOffset         System.Int32
StartScriptPosition System.Management.Automation.Language.IScriptPosition
Text                System.String


And with the help of the reference found in Parent, you can easily traverse the tree bottom-to-top.

Which raises the question: how do you traverse the opposite direction, from top-to-bottom? After all, the parser returns the top tree element.

#### Default Methods

That’s why the type [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] also defines a number of methods:

$ast.PSObject.Methods | Select-Object -Property Name, @{Name='Signature';E={"$_".Trim()}}

Name                   Signature
----                   ---------
Copy                   System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast Copy()
Find                   System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast Find(System.Func[System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast,bool] predicate, bool searchNestedScriptBlocks)
FindAll                System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable[System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] FindAll(System.Func[System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast,bool] predicate, b...
Visit                  System.Object Visit(System.Management.Automation.Language.ICustomAstVisitor astVisitor), void Visit(System.Management.Automation.Language.AstVisitor astVisitor)


I removed all generic methods such as the accessor methods for properties, and the methods derived from [System.Object], and focused only on methods newly defined in the Ast type.

Copy() copies (clones) an Ast object. The remaining functions help you traverse the Ast tree:

Method Description
Find() Finds the first Ast object in the tree that matches the defined criteria
FindAll() Finds all Ast objects in the tree that match the defined criteria
Visit() Submits a astVisitor object that implements methods for each Ast object. These methods are called for each Ast object in the tree. Visit() is more efficient than Find()/FindAll() but since a custom-tailored astVisitor object is required, it is much more complex to use.

### Exposing Ast Objects

The parser always returns the top tree element, and with FindAll() you can traverse the tree top-to-bottom and expose all child objects.

Here is a quick example how to expose all Ast objects in the tree based on our previous example:

$code = ' "Hello" * 10 '$ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseInput($code, [ref]$null, [ref]$null) # search criteria similar to how Where-Object works: # when this scriptblock returns$true, the object is included
# let's include everything and always return $true:$predicate = { $true } # search for all ast objects, including nested scriptblocks:$recurse = $true # traverse the tree from top to bottom, and emit all Ast objects:$ast.FindAll($predicate,$recurse)


The result is a series of Ast objects describing the structures found in the PowerShell source code:

Attributes         : {}
UsingStatements    : {}
ParamBlock         :
BeginBlock         :
ProcessBlock       :
EndBlock           : "Hello" * 10
DynamicParamBlock  :
ScriptRequirements :
Extent             :  "Hello" * 10
Parent             :

Unnamed    : True
BlockKind  : End
Statements : {"Hello" * 10}
Traps      :
Extent     : "Hello" * 10
Parent     :  "Hello" * 10

PipelineElements : {"Hello" * 10}
Extent           : "Hello" * 10
Parent           : "Hello" * 10

Expression   : "Hello" * 10
Redirections : {}
Extent       : "Hello" * 10
Parent       : "Hello" * 10

Operator      : Multiply
Left          : "Hello"
Right         : 10
ErrorPosition : *
StaticType    : System.Object
Extent        : "Hello" * 10
Parent        : "Hello" * 10

StringConstantType : DoubleQuoted
Value              : Hello
StaticType         : System.String
Extent             : "Hello"
Parent             : "Hello" * 10

Value      : 10
StaticType : System.Int32
Extent     : 10
Parent     : "Hello" * 10


### Kinds of Ast Objects

Each Ast object derives from the common type [System.Management.Automation.Language.Ast] and thus exposes the properties Parent and Extent. When you look at the results above, though, you immediately notice that each object exposes different additional details.

Let’s have a look at the actual types of these Ast objects next:

# PowerShell code to analyze:
$code = ' "Hello" * 10 ' # parse code:$ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseInput($code, [ref]$null, [ref]$null) # include all ast objects:$predicate = { $true } # search for all ast objects, including nested scriptblocks:$recurse = $true # expose the object type:$type = @{
Name = 'Type'
Expression = { $_.GetType().Name } } # expose the code position:$position = @{
Name = 'Position'
Expression = { '{0,3}-{1,-3}' -f  $_.Extent.StartOffset,$_.Extent.EndOffset, $_.Extent.Text } } # expose the text of the code:$text = @{
Name = 'Code'
Expression = { $_.Extent.Text } } # find the ast objects:$astObjects = $ast.FindAll($predicate, $recurse) # output the ast type and code position$astObjects | Select-Object -Property $position,$type, $text  The result visualizes the many different Ast objects that describe the code: Position Type Code -------- ---- ---- 0-14 ScriptBlockAst "Hello" * 10 1-13 NamedBlockAst "Hello" * 10 1-13 PipelineAst "Hello" * 10 1-13 CommandExpressionAst "Hello" * 10 1-13 BinaryExpressionAst "Hello" * 10 1-8 StringConstantExpressionAst "Hello" 11-13 ConstantExpressionAst 10  #### “Reading” Ast Objects The Ast starts with a generic ScriptBlockAst and then starts to become increasingly specific: the ScriptBlockAst contains one NamedBlockAst which turns out to be a PipelineAst (a PowerShell pipeline) which contains exactly one CommandExpressionAst (a PowerShell command) which turns out to be a BinaryExpressionAst (a binary operator statement), each covering code position 1 to 13. The BinaryExpressionAst is broken down into the two components each binary operator is made up of: on the left side a StringConstantExpressionAst (a literal string), and on the right side a ConstantExpressionAst (a number). ### Ast Object Inheritance The nested hierarchy of Ast objects describes the PowerShell syntax (and evolution). There are a few new types introduced in PowerShell 7 (and marked in red) to cater for newly added syntax such as the ternary operator: gantt dateFormat YYYY-MM-DD axisFormat section Ast Ast :done, , 2020-01-01,2d AttributeBaseAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d AttributeAst : , 2020-01-04,4d TypeConstraintAst : , 2020-01-04,4d CatchClauseAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d CommandElementAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d CommandParameterAst : , 2020-01-04,4d ExpressionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d ArrayExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ArrayLiteralAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d AttributedExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ConvertExpressionAst : , 2020-01-08,4d BinaryExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ConstantExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d StringConstantExpressionAst : , 2020-01-08,4d ErrorExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ExpandableStringExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d HashtableAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d IndexExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d MemberExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d InvokeMemberExpressionAst : , 2020-01-08,4d BaseCtorInvokeMemberExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-10,4d ParenExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ScriptBlockExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d SubExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d TernaryExpressionAst :crit, , 2020-01-06,4d TypeExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d UnaryExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d UsingExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d VariableExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d MemberAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d CompilerGeneratedMemberFunctionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d FunctionMemberAst : , 2020-01-04,4d PropertyMemberAst : , 2020-01-04,4d NamedAttributeArgumentAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d NamedBlockAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d ParamBlockAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d ParameterAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d RedirectionAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d FileRedirectionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d MergingRedirectionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d ScriptBlockAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d SequencePointAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d StatementAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d BlockStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d BreakStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d CommandBaseAst : , 2020-01-04,4d CommandAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d CommandExpressionAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ConfigurationDefinitionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d ContinueStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d DataStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d DynamicKeywordStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d ExitStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d FunctionDefinitionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d IfStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d LabeledStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d LoopStatementAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d DoUntilStatementAst : , 2020-01-08,4d DoWhileStatementAst : , 2020-01-08,4d ForEachStatementAst : , 2020-01-08,4d ForStatementAst : , 2020-01-08,4d WhileStatementAst : , 2020-01-08,4d SwitchStatementAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d PipelineBaseAst : , 2020-01-04,4d AssignmentStatementAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ChainableAst :crit, , 2020-01-06,4d PipelineAst :crit,active, , 2020-01-08,4d PipelineChainAst :crit,active, , 2020-01-08,4d ErrorStatementAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d PipelineAst :active, , 2020-01-06,4d ReturnStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d ThrowStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d TrapStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d TryStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d TypeDefinitionAst : , 2020-01-04,4d UsingStatementAst : , 2020-01-04,4d StatementBlockAst :active, , 2020-01-02,4d  ## Searching For Ast Elements The methods Find() and FindAll() can filter and search elements for you. In previous examples, the entire Ast tree was traversed, and all Ast objects returned. You can as well search for specific Ast objects by adjusting the predicate that is submitted to the methods. This predicate is a scriptblock that gets executed for every Ast object. The object is included in the results when the scriptblock evaluates to $true. In the previous examples, the predicate scriptblock always returned $true, thus returning every object. To filter, the predicate scriptblock receives an argument: the Ast object to test. So your predicate scriptblock can employ whatever testing is required to determine whether a given Ast object should be returned or not. ### Searching For Commands For example, you learned that a CommandExpressionAst represents a command including all of its parameters and arguments. If you’d like to auto-document your code and create a list of all commands used by a script, you can ask the Ast to find all Ast objects of type CommandExpressionAst: function Get-PowerShellCommand { param ( # accept string path to powershell files # accept objects with FullName property # accept pipeline input [Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipeline,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName)] [Alias('FullName')] [string]$Path
)

# do this for each file:
process
{
# parse file and focus on ast only:
$ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseFile($Path, [ref]$null, [ref]$null)

# include command ast objects only
# (return $true only for objects that are of required type)$predicate = { param($astObject)$astObject -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandExpressionAst] }

# search for all ast objects, including nested scriptblocks:
$recurse =$true

# find the ast objects:
$ast.FindAll($predicate, $recurse) | # take the command expression from the Ast object, and return it # with the file path and code position (Line, Column): ForEach-Object { [PSCustomObject]@{ Extent = ( '[{0,2}:{1,-2}]' -f$_.Extent.StartLineNumber, $_.Extent.StartColumnNumber ) Expression =$_.Expression
Path = $Path } } } }  #### Defining The Predicate The only new part about above code is the predicate in $predicate: it uses param to receive arguments from the caller.

The Ast submits the Ast object that it is about to return. The predicate scriptblock can now test the object in $astObject. If it is of the type we are after, the predicate scriptblock returns $true, and the object is included in the results.

#### Testing

You can submit either a path to Test-PowerShellCommand or pipe files into the command. If you are using the ISE editor, make sure you save above file, then run this in the interactive console pane:

# this works only if you are using the ISE editor,
# and there is a *saved* file in the current script pane
$result = Get-Item -Path$psise.CurrentFile.FullPath | Get-PowerShellCommand
$result  If you prefer VSCode, again make sure the code is saved (or there is another saved file present in the active editor pane), then run this in the interactive console pane: # this works only if you are using the VSCode editor, # and there is a *saved* file in the current script pane$result = Get-Item -Path $pseditor.GetEditorContext().CurrentFile.Path | Get-PowerShellCommand$result


The result looks like this:

Extent  Expression
------  ----------
[13:12] [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseFile($Path, [ref]$null, [ref]$null) [16:18] { param($astObject)  $astObject -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandExpressionAst] } [16:39]$astObject -is [System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandExpressionAst]
[19:16] $true [21:5 ]$ast.FindAll($predicate,$recurse)
[25:7 ] [PSCustomObject]@{...
[26:18] ( '[{0,2}:{1,-2}]' -f  $_.Extent.StartLineNumber,$_.Extent.StartColumnNumber )
[26:20] '[{0,2}:{1,-2}]' -f  $_.Extent.StartLineNumber,$_.Extent.StartColumnNumber
[27:22] $_.Expression [28:16]$Path


#### Evaluating Results

The Ast returned all commands found in this script. As you see, a PowerShell command is any executable statement and can be an application, a cmdlet, but also a method invocation or just a variable or scriptblock.

That’s why the Ast further refines the commands: Expression really is a different object for different types of expressions:

$result.Expression | ForEach-Object {$_.GetType().Name }

InvokeMemberExpressionAst
ScriptBlockExpressionAst
BinaryExpressionAst
VariableExpressionAst
InvokeMemberExpressionAst
ConvertExpressionAst
ParenExpressionAst
BinaryExpressionAst
MemberExpressionAst
VariableExpressionAst


## Picking Suitable Ast Types

To work efficiently with the Ast and find what you are after, the most important step to take is to understand the different Ast types, and what they represent.

You may want to review the object inheritance tree: look up CommandElementAst, then ExpressionAst, and you see the list of Ast expressions that can be returned above.

### Investigate By Example

Probably the best and easiest way to find suitable Ast objects is to learn by example: create a simple test setup like below, and examine how your sample code turns up in the Ast:

$code = { # place your test code here (make it as simple as you can):$a = 1
}

# return the ast information:
$code.Ast.FindAll( {$true }, $true) | ForEach-Object { [PSCustomObject]@{ Type =$_.GetType().FullName
Code = $_.Extent.Text } }  In this example, I investigated the statement $a = 1, and this is the output:

Type                                                         Code
----                                                         ----
System.Management.Automation.Language.ScriptBlockAst         {...
System.Management.Automation.Language.NamedBlockAst          $a = 1 System.Management.Automation.Language.AssignmentStatementAst$a = 1
System.Management.Automation.Language.VariableExpressionAst  $a System.Management.Automation.Language.CommandExpressionAst 1 System.Management.Automation.Language.ConstantExpressionAst 1  ### Visualize The Tree It may be helpful to add the Ast object relationships to the output, and visualize the tree, and how the objects are nested. That’s why I created Convert-CodeToAst that takes any simple (or complex) PowerShell code (scriptblock) and outputs the object hierarchy and involved types: function Convert-CodeToAst { param ( [Parameter(Mandatory)] [ScriptBlock]$Code
)

# build a hashtable for parents
$hierarchy = @{}$code.Ast.FindAll( { $true },$true) |
ForEach-Object {
# take unique object hash as key
$id =$_.Parent.GetHashCode()
if ($hierarchy.ContainsKey($id) -eq $false) {$hierarchy[$id] = [System.Collections.ArrayList]@() }$null = $hierarchy[$id].Add($_) # add ast object to parent } # visualize tree recursively function Visualize-Tree($Id, $Indent = 0) { # use this as indent per level:$space = '--' * $indent$hierarchy[$id] | ForEach-Object { # output current ast object with appropriate # indentation: '{0}[{1}]: {2}' -f$space, $_.GetType().Name,$_.Extent

# take id of current ast object
$newid =$_.GetHashCode()
# recursively look at its children (if any):
if ($hierarchy.ContainsKey($newid))
{
Visualize-Tree -id $newid -indent ($indent + 1)
}
}
}

# start visualization with ast root object:
Visualize-Tree -id $code.Ast.GetHashCode() }  Call it like this: Convert-CodeToAst -Code { # place your test code here (make it as simple as you can):$a = 1
}


The result looks like this:

[NamedBlockAst]: $a = 1 --[AssignmentStatementAst]:$a = 1
----[VariableExpressionAst]: $a ----[CommandExpressionAst]: 1 ------[ConstantExpressionAst]: 1  ## Returning Ast Objects Here is a catch-all helper function that can be used to easily retrieve Ast objects of given type from PowerShell code: function Get-PsOneAst { param ( # PowerShell code to examine: [Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipeline)] [string]$Code,

# requested Ast type
# use dynamic argument completion:
[ArgumentCompleter({
param($commandName,$parameterName, $wordToComplete,$commandAst, $fakeBoundParameters) # get all ast types [PSObject].Assembly.GetTypes().Where{$_.Name.EndsWith('Ast')}.Name |
Sort-Object |
# filter results by word to complete
Where-Object { $_.LogName -like "$wordToComplete*" } |
Foreach-Object {
# create completionresult items:
[System.Management.Automation.CompletionResult]::new($_,$_, "ParameterValue", $_) } })]$AstType = '*',

# when set, do not recurse into nested scriptblocks:
[Switch]
$NoRecursion ) begin { # create the filter predicate by using the submitted$AstType
# if the user did not specify it is "*" by default, including all:
$predicate = { param($astObject) $astObject.GetType().Name -like$AstType }
}
# do this for every submitted code:
process
{
# we need to read the errors because we are accepting text which
# can contain syntax errors:
$errors =$null
$ast = [System.Management.Automation.Language.Parser]::ParseInput($Code, [ref]$null, [ref]$errors)

# if the code contains syntax errors and is invalid, bail out:
if ($errors) { throw [System.InvalidCastException]::new("Submitted text could not be converted to PowerShell because it contains syntax errors:$($errors | Out-String)")} # search for all requested ast...$ast.FindAll($predicate, !$NoRecursion) |
# and dynamically add a visible property for the ast object type:
Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name Type -Value { \$this.GetType().Name } -PassThru
}
}


And here is an example:

Get-PsOneAst -Code 'ping 127.0.0.1'


The result looks like this:

Type               : ScriptBlockAst
Attributes         : {}
UsingStatements    : {}
ParamBlock         :
BeginBlock         :
ProcessBlock       :
EndBlock           : ping 127.0.0.1
DynamicParamBlock  :
ScriptRequirements :
Extent             : ping 127.0.0.1
Parent             :

Type       : NamedBlockAst
Unnamed    : True
BlockKind  : End
Statements : {ping 127.0.0.1}
Traps      :
Extent     : ping 127.0.0.1
Parent     : ping 127.0.0.1

Type             : PipelineAst
PipelineElements : {ping 127.0.0.1}
Extent           : ping 127.0.0.1
Parent           : ping 127.0.0.1

Type               : CommandAst
CommandElements    : {ping, 127.0.0.1}
InvocationOperator : Unknown
DefiningKeyword    :
Redirections       : {}
Extent             : ping 127.0.0.1
Parent             : ping 127.0.0.1

Type               : StringConstantExpressionAst
StringConstantType : BareWord
Value              : ping
StaticType         : System.String
Extent             : ping
Parent             : ping 127.0.0.1

Type               : StringConstantExpressionAst
StringConstantType : BareWord
Value              : 127.0.0.1
StaticType         : System.String
Extent             : 127.0.0.1
Parent             : ping 127.0.0.1


Note how the property Type was added to each returned Ast object so you can easily understand what the types are.

Obviously, a CommandAst represents commands of the type that I used as an example, so let’s return only these:

Get-PsOneAst -Code 'ping 127.0.0.1' -AstType CommandAst


Note how -AstType sports convenient dynamic argument completion and suggests all available Ast types. The result looks like this:

Type               : CommandAst
CommandElements    : {ping, 127.0.0.1}
InvocationOperator : Unknown
DefiningKeyword    :
Redirections       : {}
Extent             : ping 127.0.0.1
Parent             : ping 127.0.0.1


From here, it is only a trivial step to create your own full-fledged auto-documentation or even refactoring tools.

Since every Ast object has the property Extent which tells you exactly where in the original PowerShell code the structure is located, you could easily now identify commands that use positional arguments, replace global variables with scriptglobal variables, or even identify the new PowerShell 7 ternary operator and replace it by the classic If-Else construct in case you want to make sure the code is compatible with Windows PowerShell.

## Graphical Analysis: ShowPSAst

While exploring the Ast, you may also look at Jason Shirks ShowPSAst, a simple yet powerful UI to explore the PowerShell Ast. Simply install the module from the PowerShell Gallery:

# install ShowPSAst module:
Install-Module -Name ShowPSAst -Scope CurrentUser -Force


Next, pick a PowerShell script you want to explore, and load it:

Show-Ast -InputObject "C:\file.ps1"


The window does not respond very well to resizing and maximizing at this time, so maybe you feel intrigued to polish the code a bit and get in touch with Jason. You find the project here.

## What’s Next?

I hope I opened up the PowerShell Ast for you and provided all you need to get started. If you create cool documentation or refactoring tools, please do not forget to leave a comment so we can point to your repo or article.

There is so much more you can do, this is just the tip of the iceberg. Leave your questions as a comment should you get stuck anywhere.